A cursory glance at the Holy Quran and the personas of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and the infallible Imams (a.s.) illustrates the significance of love and enmity in the way of Allah. It is not surprising that Allah has called them as the pillars of Prophethood. He says in Surah Nahl (16), verse 36

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ ۖ فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ هَدَى اللَّهُ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ الضَّلَالَةُ ۚ فَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ

 

‘And certainly We raised in every nation a messenger saying: Serve Allah and shun the Shaitan. So there were some of them whom Allah guided and there were others against whom error was due; therefore travel in the land, then see the fate of those who reject.’

 

The most important duty of the Prophets (a.s.) was to invite the people towards Allah’s worship and avoid Shaitan. Both these actions are necessary and in fact inter-linked. As long as man does not shun Shaitan, he will not reach perfection in religion even if he is diligent in worshipping Allah.

In Surah Fath (48) verse 29, two aspects of the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) life have been narrated.

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ

 

‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those with him are firm of heart against the unbelievers, compassionate among themselves…’

 

The premier slogan of Islam is لا اله الا الله . It is evident from the statement the denial of all gods and rivals (Taaghut) is the first step towards recognition of Allah and the second step is belief in Allah. Rejection of Taaghut (enemies of Allah) is as important if not more important than love of Allah. To understand this better, let us look at the traditions of the infallible guides (a.s.).

Khattab b. Muslemah narrates that Imam Baqir (a.s.) said: Allah never raised any prophet except with belief in our mastership (Wilayat) and hatred of our enemy. And this is the saying of Allah in His Book:

And certainly We raised in every nation a messenger saying: Serve Allah and shun the Shaitan. So there were some of them whom Allah guided and there were others against whom error was due’ it is their denial of Muhammad’s (s.a.w.a.) progeny. Then he said ‘therefore travel in the land, then see what was the end of the rejecters.

We will discuss this topic based on traditions from the following sources:

  1. Wasaail al-Shiah, vol.16, pg 178, Chap 17: Wujubo Hubbe al-Momin wa Bughze al-Kaafir,  tradition 21,287
  2. Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 27, pg 54, Chap 1: Wujoobo Muwalaate Awaaliyehim wa Moadaate Aadaehim, tradition 8 (Tafseer-o-Imam (a.s.), Ma’ani al-Akhbaar, Oyoono Akhbaar al-Reza (a.s.), Elal al-Sharaae’)
  3. Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 66, pg 236, Chap 36: Al-Hubbo fillah wa al-Boghzo fillah, tradition 1
  4. Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 66, pg 236, Chap 36: Al-Hubbo fillah wa al-Boghzo fillah (Tafseer-e-Imam (a.s.), Elal al-Sharaae’,  Oyoon-o-Akhbaar al-Reza (a.s.), Amaali-e-Saduq)
  5. Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 105, pg 77
  6. Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 105, pg 169
  7. Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 107, pg 41,
  8. Amaali-e-Saduq, Majlis No. 3, pg 8, tradition 7
  9. Tafseer-o-Imam Askari (a.s.) 47, (Aazamo al-Taate), pg 42, tradition 22
  10. Rauzah al-Waaezeen, vol. 2, pg 417, Majlis fi Zikr Mohabbatellah wa al-Hubbe fillah
  11. Sefaat al-Shiah, tradition 65
  12. Elal al-Sharaae’, vol. 1, pg. 140, Chap 119: Ellato Wujoobe al-Hubbe fillah wa al-Boghze fillah wa al-Mowaalat, tradition 1
  13. Oyoon-o-Akhbaar al-Reza (a.s.), vol. 1, pg 291, Chap 28: Fi Maa Jaa an al-Imam Ali b. Moosa al-Reza (a.s.), tradition 41
  14. Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. 2, pg 295, Chap: Zikro Wafaate Ali b. Moosa al-Reza (a.s.)
  15. Majmooah (also called as Tanbeeh al-Khaatir) by Warraam Ibn Abi Faraas (a 6th Century Hijri Scholar from Hillah, Iraq) vol. 2, pg. 98, Part 2
  16. Mishkaah al-Anwaar, pg 123, Al-Fasl Khamis fi al-Mahabbah wa al-Shauq
  17. Ma’ani al-Akhbaar, pg 36, Bab-o-Maane al-Seraat, pg 32, tradition 9, pg 399, Baab al-Nawaadir, pg 379, tradition 58

 

Muhammad b. al-Qasim al-Astrabaadi narrated that Yusuf b. Muhammad b. Ziyad and Ali b. Muhammad b. Sayyaar quoted on the authority of their respective fathers who quoted from Imam Hasan b. Ali al-Askari  (a.s.) who relates on the authority of his forefathers (a.s.) that one day the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) told some  of his companions, ‘O servants of Allah! Love for the sake of Allah and hate for the sake of Allah. Befriend for the sake of Allah and bear enmity for the sake of Allah. That is because you cannot achieve Allah’s Mastership except in this manner. No one will experience true faith unless he does so – even if he prays and fasts a lot. Most friendships and animosities of the world are for the sake of this world. People like each other for the world and they hate each other for the world. However, this will not benefit them.’

Then a man asked, ‘How can I ensure that my friendship and animosity are for the sake of Allah? Who is Allah’s friend so that I may befriend him? Who is Allah’s enemy so that I may shun him?’

The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) pointed towards Ali (a.s.) and said, ‘Do you see him?’ The man said, ‘Yes.’ The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed, ‘He is Allah’s friend, whoever loves him is Allah’s friend and whoever despises him is Allah’s enemy. Therefore, love Ali (a.s.) and be the enemy of Ali’s (a.s.) enemy and befriend Ali’s (a.s.) friend. Befriend Ali’s (a.s.) friend even if Ali’s (a.s.) friend may have killed your father or your son. Be the enemy of Ali’s enemy even if he is your father or son.’

By referring to traditions of the infallible guides (a.s.), we can conclude that the concept of mastership has always been linked closely with hostility towards the enemies of Allah. Whenever friendship has been ordered, there is always a twin command for enmity.  This means that when a Muslim is exhorted towards friendship of a thing/person, he is explicitly or implicitly told to bear enmity against the adversaries of that thing/person.

Thus, his obedience and love is related to Allah and his hatred and enmity is related to the enemies of Allah. Thus, the foundation of religion and faith is love towards it and enmity against its opponents.

The Holy Quran says: ‘…serve Allah and shun the Shaitan…’

This is a standard for people of all times and terminologically it is referred to as ‘Tawalla’ and ‘Tabarra’.

Explanation of the above:

Al Kaafi, vol. 2, pg. 124, Chap: Al Hubbo fillah wa al-Boghzo fillah, tradition 1

Wasaail al-Shiah, vol. 16, pg 165, Chap: Wujubo al-Hubbe fillah wa al-Boghze fillah wa al E’taae fillah wa al-Ma’ne fillah, tradition 21,249

It is narrated from Marhoom-e-Barqi in Al-Mahaasin narrating from Ibn Mehboob, Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 66, pg 238, Chap 36: Al-Hubbo fillah wa al-Boghzo fillah, tradition 12

Wasaail al-Shiah, vol. 16, pg 169, Chap: Wujubo al Hubbe fillah wa al Boghze fillah wa al-E’taae fillah wa al-Ma’ne fillah, tradition 21,261

Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 66, pg 238, Chap 36: Al-Hubbo fillah wa al-Boghzo fillah, tradition 10, Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 67, pg 248, Chap 54:  Al Ikhlaas-o-wa ma’naa Qurbehi Taala, tradition 22

 

Abu Abdillah (a.s.) informed: ‘One who loves for Allah and one who bears enmity for Allah and one who bestows for Allah’s sake (in Mahaasin, it is further mentioned ‘and one who withholds for Allah’s sake) then he is the one whose faith is complete.

Mustadrak al-Wasaail, vol. 12, pg 227, Chap 14: Wujub al-Hubbe fillah wa al-Boghze fillah wa al E’taae fillah wa al-Man’e fillah, tradition 13,954, Ghorar al-Hekam, tradition 32.

Shaikh Abdul Waahed Al-Aamudi (r.a.) quotes from Ameerul Momeneen (a.s.) in Ghorar al-Hekam: “Total goodness is in being friends for Allah’s sake and bearing enmity for Allah’s sake and in hating for Allah’s sake and loving for Allah’s sake.”

Imam (a.s.) also said: “The peak of faith is loving for sake of Allah and enmity for sake of Allah and abandoning for sake of Allah and joining for sake of Allah.

Imam (a.s.) said: “One who desires that his faith should be complete must ensure his love, enmity, satisfaction and anger are for Allah’s sake.”

Imam (a.s.) further informed: “One who gives, prohibits, loves and hates in the way of Allah then certainly he will reach completeness of faith.”

Sharh-o-Nahj al-Balaaghah of Ibn Abil Hadeed from Aqwaal al-Hikmah, pg. 3

“Indeed the faith of a man will not be complete till he loves and hates the one whom Allah loves and hates.”

Mustadrak al-Wasaail, vol. 12, pg. 228, Chap 14: Wujubo al-Hubbe fillah wa al-Boghze fillah wa al-E’taae fillah wa al-Ma’ne fillah, tradition 13,953

Abul Qasim Kufi in Kitab al-Akhlaq narrates from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) who said: ‘The head of faith is to love and hate for the sake of Allah.’

Wasaail al-Shiah, vol. 16, pg 168, Chap 14: Wujubo al-Hubbe fillah wa al-Boghze fillah wa al-E’taae fillah wa al-Ma’ne fillah, tradition 21,255 from al-Mahaasin, vol. 1, pg 263, Chap 34: Al Hubbo fillah wa al-Boghzo fillah

Abu Abdillah (a.s.) informed: There are three signs of a believer – knowledge about Allah, whom He (Allah) loves and whom He hates.

Mustadrak al-Wasaail, vol. 12, pg. 228, Chap 14: Wujubo al-Hubbe fillah wa al-Boghze fillah wa al-E’taae fillah wa al-Ma’ne fillah, tradition 13,925

Ibne Taimiyyah says: It is obligatory on all Muslims that his love, hatred, friendship and enmity should be for the affairs of Allah and His Messenger. Then He should love what Allah and His Messenger love and hate what Allah and His Messenger hate.