While Allah has honoured the Ahle Bait (a.s.) on various occasions, we see this trend accentuated in the month of Zilhajj. Also evident is Allah’s disgust for the enemies, opponents and imposters who challenged the Ahle Bait (a.s.) stubbornly.
Listed below are the various occasions when Allah has honoured the Ahle Bait (a.s.) and disgraced their enemies. Also mentioned are widely recorded historical dates.
1st Zilhajj – Marriage of Fatima Zahra (s.a.) with Ameerul Momineen (a.s.)
Allah rejected all marriage proposals for Hazrat Fatima (s.a.) including those advanced by Abu Bakr, Umar, Abdul Rahman Ibn Auf and instructed the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) to marry her to Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.).
The marriage was in 2nd Hijri after the Battle of Badr.
Marriage was on 6th Zilhajj according to some sources.
- Mafatih al-Jinan under 1st Zilhajj from Shaikh Tusi (r. a.) and Shaikh Kafami (r.a.)
1st Zilhajj – When Allah replaced Abu Bakr with Ameerul Momineen (a.s.)
Allah ordered the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) to recall Abu Bakr and replace him with Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) for the propagation of Surah Barah (9) in the 9th Hijri
- Manaqib Aal-e-Abi Talib (a.s.) v 2 p 144
- Al-Ghadeer v 6 p 337-350
- Musnad of Ahmad v 1 p 151, v 3 p 212, 283
- Sunan Tirmizi v 3 p 339
- Fath al-Bari v 8 p 239-242
- Khasais p 91
- Al-Musnif v 7 p 506
Both the events (marriage to Fatima Zahra (s.a.) and propagation of Surah Baqarah), clearly underscores superiority of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) vis-à-vis the opponents, as Allah Himself has rejected others in favour of Ali (a.s.).
10th Zilhajj – Eid al-Azha
Both the Eids of Fitr and Azha are in fact to be celebrated with the Proof of Allah from the progeny of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). The Muslims are to turn to the divine Proof on the blessed day of Eid because it is in his honour that Allah has made these days significant for the Muslims.
The significance of Ahle Bait (a.s.) in the Eids is evident from the two important acts of worship recommended on these days:
- Dua al-Nudba to invoke the Imam of the Time (a.t.f.s.)
- Ziyarat of Imam Husain (a.s.) from near or far
One who recites Ziyarat of Imam Husain (a.s.) on Eid al-Fitr / Eid al-Azha, it is as if he has visited Allah on the Arsh.
- Misbah al-Zair p 172
18th Zilhajj – Formal announcement of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) as Prophet’s successor
In the final pilgrimage, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) after repeatedly appointing Ali (a.s.) as his successor over 23 years of his prophethood, delivered his last sermon in which he (s.a.w.a.) formally appointed Ali (a.s.) and his eleven infallible sons (a.s.) as his successors. The infallible Imams (a.s.) will always remain amidst the Muslims as guides along with the Holy Quran till the Day of Judgement.
This sermon famous as the Sermon of Ghadeer is widely recorded by Muslim scholars. Allamah Abdul Husain Amini (r.a.) has compiled an 11-volume book establishing the credentials of the Hadith from various angles i.e. chain, text, literature, rational arguments, etc. The first volume deals exclusively with the hundreds of narrators of the hadith from the Sahabah (companions) and Tabe’een (second generation Muslims) and the hundreds of Muslim authors who have documented the hadith in their books.
24th Zilhajj – Revelation of Verse of Mubahelah
In the dispute against the Christians, Allah revealed the following verse in favour of Aal Muhammad (a.s.):
But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and ourselves and yourselves, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.
- Surah Ale Imran (3): 61
According to scholars of both schools, this verse refers to the Ali (a.s.), Fatima Zahra (s.a.), Imams Hasan (a.s.) and Husain (a.s.) who accompanied the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in the imprecation (Mubahelah) against the Christians of Najran.
- Al-Ehtejaaj v 2 p 392
- Jami al-Tirmizi, book 47, trad 3,269
- Jame al-Bayan of Tabari (Ahle Sunnah) v 3 p 211-212
- Tafseer al-Kashhaf v 1 p 368-369
- Tafseer al-Qurtubbi v 4 p 104
- Al-Durr al-Manthoor v 2 p 39
- Shawahid al-Tanzeel v 1 p 165
Why the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) did not take the companions for Mubahelah?
Huzaifah bin Yaman narrates – I was in Medina when two bishops of Najran named Sayyid and Aaqib approached the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and challenged him for Mubahelah (cursing).
When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) got ready for Mubahelah, Aaqib informed Sayyid – O Sayyid if Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) comes for Mubahelah with his companions, he is not a Prophet. If he comes with his progeny he is a true Prophet and Messenger of Allah.
- Shawahid al-Tanzeel under the Surah Ale Imran (3): 61
24th Zilhajj – Revelation of the Verse of Wilayat – Surah Maidah (5): 55
On this day Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) offered his ring, to the needy one, while in prayer one prompting Allah to reveal the verse:
‘Only Allah is your Master and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.’ (Surah Maidah (5): 55)
- Mafatih al-Jinan under the importance of 24th Zilhajj
- Tafsir al-Quran al-Azeem of Ibn Kathir (student of Ibn Taymiyya) under Surah Maidah (5): 55
- Al-Durr al-Manthoor under Surah Maidah (5): 55
- Tafsir al-Thalabi under Surah Maidah (5): 55
- Shawahid al-Tanzeel under Surah Maidah (5): 55
- Jame al-Bayaan / Tafsir al-Tabari under Surah Maidah (5): 55
- Al-Nur al-Mushtal of Abu Noaim p 73
- Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) of Ibn Mordawayh p 231
- Tafsir Maqatil Ibn Sulaiman under Surah Maidah (5): 55
25th Zilhajj – Revelation of Surah Dahr / Insan (76) in favour of Aale Muhammad (a.s.)
On this day, Allah revealed Surah Dahr (72) in in favour of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.), Fatima Zahra (s.a.), Hasan (a.s.) and Husain (a.s.) when they fasted for three successive days after offering the only food left in the house to the needy one, the orphan and the captive. At the end of three days, Allah arranged heavenly food for the Aale Muhammad (a.s.). with which they broke the fast.
- Mafatih al-Jinan under 25th Zilhajj
- Misbah al-Mutahajjid p. 712
- Misbah al-Kafami v 2 p 601
- Tafseer al-Burhan under Surah Dahr
- Zaad al-Maad p 301
- Behaar al-Anwaar v 35 p 242
- Al-Manaaqeb of Ibn Shahr Ashob v 3 p 103
- Tafseer al-Thalabi v 10 p 101
- Shawahid al-Tanzeel v 2 p 403
- Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) of Ibn Murdawayh p 341
- Tafseer al-Qurtubbi v 19 p 130
- Al-Durr al-Manthoor v 6 p 299
Zilhajj is a month when Allah has marked the Ahle Bait (a.s.), particularly Ameerul Momineen (a.s.), with unparalleled excellence and virtues and has separated them from others, especially those who challenged Ali (a.s.) for leadership.