The Ghadeer sermon and appointment therein of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) and the eleven Imams (a.s.) as successors of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) is likely the most widely documented report of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). With the Ghadeer sermon, it was public knowledge that Ali (a.s.) was the undisputed successor of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).
The Ghadeer announcement of Ali’s (a.s.) successorship was invoked by the Ahle Bait (a.s.) and their followers on various occasions to point out Ali’s (a.s.) superior right to caliphate and the disqualification of others from claiming this God-given position.
- Prophet’s beloved daughter Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.) rejects all excuses
Regarding the Muslims paying allegiance to others instead of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) in the aftermath of Saqifah, the narrator tells Fatima Zahra (s.a.):
O Chief of Women – had Ali (a.s.) spoken to us about the matter (of his superior right) and had reminded the people before they paid allegiance (to Abu Bakr), none of us would have deviated from him.
She (s.a.) retorted: Allah will not accept any excuse or argument from anyone after Ghadeer-e-Khum.
- Dalail al-Imamah p 122
- Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) rejects all arguments
A group of Ansar addressed Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) after paying allegiance to Abu Bakr:
Had the Ansar heard your arguments (on superior to claim to caliphate) before giving their pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr, none would have disputed your rule.
Imam Ali (a.s.) replied:
Did you want me to leave the shrouded body of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) without burial and come out to quarrel for his successorship? By Allah! I could not believe anyone would yearn for it and dispute with us Ahle Bait (a.s.) over it and make lawful to do what you did (in usurping our rights). I did not see the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) leaving any scope for any argument or for any controversial talk after the day of Ghadeer Khum.
- Al-Ehtejaj v 1 p 74
- Behar al-Anwar v 28 p 186
- Ghadeer reminder in Shura
Ali (a.s.) presented the Ghadeer announcement to the Shura council members – Talha, Zubair, Usman, Abdul Rahman Ibn Auf and Saad Ibn Abi Waqqas, which they acknowledged to be true:
I implore you for the sake of Allah, is there anyone among you whom the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) appointed on the day of Ghadeer-e-Khum by the order of Allah and said that ‘Of whomsoever I am the Master then Ali is his Master, O Allah love him who loves him (Ali) and hate him who hates him (Ali)’, except me?
They replied: No.
- Al-Ehtejaj v 1 p 134-145
- Manaqib Khwarizmi p 217 (p 313 trad 314)
- Also see Faraid al-Simtain v 1 p 319 trad 251
- Sawaiq al-Mohriqa p 75 (p 126)
- Sharh Nahj al-Balagha Sermon 73
- Companions bear witness in Rohbah
Multiple narrators have related that:
We heard Ali bin Abi Talib in Rohbah (a city on side of the river of Khaaboor, north of Syria) say:
I ask those of you who heard the speech of the Prophet on the Day of Ghadeer to stand up for the sake of Allah.
Thirteen people stood up and testified the following:
The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) said:
Do I not have more authority on the believers than they have on themselves?
The people replied: Yes, O Messenger of Allah!
Then the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) took the hand of Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) and said:
Of whomsoever I am his master, this Ali is his master. O Allah! Befriend his friends and be the enemy of his enemies. O Allah! Love those who love him and hate those who hate him. O Allah! Support those who support him and abandon those who abandon him.
- Basharah al-Mustafa (s.a.w.a.) v 2 p 125
- Sharh Nahj al-Balagha v 1 p 362
- Al-Manaqib of Ibn Jawzi
- Iqd al-Fareed v 4 p 71-72
- Khasais (of Nesai) p 22
- Al-Isabah v 2 p 408, v 4 p 80
- Al-Ghadeer v 1 p 159-196
- Ehqaq al-Haq 6 p 318-340
- Amali of Shaikh Tusi (r.a.) p 272
- Ghadeer reminder in Battle of Jamal
Famous Ahle Tasannun scholar and Hafiz Abu Abdullah Hakim al-Nishapur, in his book Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihain, has narrated through his chains from Rafa Ibn Ayas Zabbi from his father from his grandfather that:
I was with Ali (a.s.) on the day of Battle of Jamal. Imam (a.s.) sent message to Talha Ibn Ubaidillah to come and meet him.
When he came, Imam (a.s.) asked: I implore you for the sake of Allah, did you not hear from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) that he said:
Of whomsoever I am the master, Ali is also his master. O Allah, love those, who love him and be hate those, who hate him?
Imam (a.s.) asked: ‘Then why have you come out to fight me?
He replied: I did not remember it.
Then Talha went away (but still fought the battle).
- Al-Mustadrak v 3 p 371 (v 3 p 419 trad 5,594
- Muruj al-Zahab 2 382
- Al-Manaqib of Khwarizmi p 112 (p 182 trad 221)
- Kanz al-Ummal v 6 p 83 (v 11 p 332 trad 31,662)
- Jame al-Jawame of Suyuti 1 831, v 2 p 95
6. Zaid Ibn Sawhan al-Abdi (r.a.) – The Martyr of Jamal
Zaid (r.a.) to Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) while breathing his last on the battlefield of Jamal:
I did not fight alongside you out of ignorance. Rather I heard Umme Salmah (r.a.) narrate from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) –
Of whomsoever I am the Master, then Ali is his Master. O Allah be a guardian of the one who takes Ali as his guardian and be an enemy of the one who takes Ali as an enemy. Help him who helps Ali. Forsake him who forsakes Ali.
Then by Allah, I did not like to forsake you for then Allah would have forsaken me.
- Rijal al-Kashi v 1 p 284
- Al-Ikhtesas p 79
- Behar al-Anwar v 32 p 188, v 37 p 233
7. Ghadeer reminder in Battle of Siffeen
Ammar Ibn Yasir (r.a.) challenges Amr Ibn Aas in Siffeen battle with Hadith al-Ghadeer:
O Abtar! Do you deny that Allah’s Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had declared:
Of whomsoever I am the Master, then Ali is his Master. O Allah befriend one who takes Ali as Master and hate one who hates Ali.
- Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah v 8 p 21
- Waqah al-Siffeen p 338
8. Ghadeer reminder in Karbala
Imam Husain (a.s.) addresses Yazid’s army in Karbala to prove his superiority:
I implore you in the name of Allah. Do you know that Ali (a.s.) was the first man to accept Islam, was most knowledgeable in the nation, had the most forbearance in the nation and that he is the Master of every Muslim man and woman?
They replied: By Allah, yes.
- Al-Lohoof p 85-87
These are but a few reminders of Hadith al-Ghadeer from among the many served by Ahle Bait (a.s.) and their lovers to the opponents of Ghadeer. These incidents prove that the Ghadeer announcement was widely acknowledged by the Muslims, else the Ahle Bait (a.s.) would not be using it as an argument. The silence of the opponents in the face of the Ghadeer argument proves that they acknowledged reality of Ghadeer and had no rebuttal to offer. Indeed, Ghadeer is a reminder for Muslims of all ages who must not only acknowledge its authenticity, but mend their beliefs on Imamat in line with Hadith al-Ghadeer.
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