The companions and wives took liberties with Ameerul Momineen (a.s.), Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) right from the martyrdom of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). While the twenty-five years under the rulers saw them treat Imam (a.s.) with controlled aggression, their attitude took a very hostile turn under Imam’s (a.s.) caliphate.
They seemed all too eager to confront Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) in battle without sparing a thought for the grave consequences of their actions.
People of Jamal, Siffeen and Nahrawan worse than disbelievers
According to Quran and traditions, the Muslims who fought Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) are worse than disbelievers.
Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) while discussing those who fought Ali (a.s.) –
Know that they are greater criminals than those who fought the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).
He (a.s.) was asked – How is that O Son of Allah’s Prophet?
He (a.s.) informed – They were the people from the era of ignorance (Jahiliyyah) while these ones recited the Quran and they recognized the people of merit then they did what they did despite the knowledge.
- Mustadrak al-Wasail v 11 p 62, 66v
- Manaqib Aal Abi Talib (a.s.) v 3 p 218
- Behaar al-Anwaar v 32 p 322
Allah at war with rebels of Jamal, Siffeen, Nahrawan
Three groups waged war with Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) – the Nakeseen (oath-breakers), Qaseteen (Unjust) and Mareqeen (Deviated).
The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had foretold about the three battles as also the grave consequences of rebelling against Ali (a.s.).
He (s.a.w.a.) informed Ameerul Momineen (a.s.):
Allah is at war with those who are at war with you and Allah hates those who hate you…
- Al-Isabah v 2 p 43
- Al-Fusool al-Mukhtarah p 245
- Al-Jamal p 81
- Taqreeb al-Maarif p 199
- Al-Ghadeer v 10 p 252
Likewise, he (s.a.w.a.) informed Ameerul Momineen (a.s.):
He has lied who believes he loves me, while he hates you, O Ali!
One who wages war with you has waged war with me and one who wages war with me, has waged war with Allah.
One who hates you, hates me and who hates me hates Allah and He will cast him in Fire of Hell.
- Al-Amali of Shaikh Sadooq (r.a.) p 383
- Al-Amali of Shaikh Tusi (r.a.) 426
- Al-Basharah p 60
- Al-Tarf p 596
Rebels are outside the realm of Islam
Those who rebel against leader of Muslims are outside the realm of Islam as warned on numerous occasions by the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) viz.
One who dislikes a thing done by his leader (Amir) should be patient over it, for anyone from the people who withdraws (his obedience) from the government, even to the extent of a handspan and died in that condition, would die the death of one belonging to the days of paganism (jahiliyyah).
- Sahih Muslim trad 4,560 under book 33 trad 88
- Sahih al-Bukhari trad 7053 in book 92 trad 6
Muslims interpret such traditions to defend the third ruler who met with lot of opposition from the Muslims for his misrule.
But it is equally applicable to Ameerul Momineen’s (a.s.) rule and all the rebels who fought him (a.s.) in Jamal, Siffeen and Nahrawan are outside the realm of Islam going by the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) clear warning.
Insulting a believer is a grave sin, to fight him is a bigger crime
Allah holds the believer in high regard.
In Hadith al-Qudsi, Allah declares to Prophet (s.a.w.a.):
One who insults a believer has raised the banner of revolt against Me.
- Al-Momin p 32
- Al-Kafi v 1 p 144, v 2 p 351
- Al-Tauheed p 169, 399
- Al-Jawahir al-Saniyyah p 242
When merely insulting a believer is such a dangerous crime, then what about going to battle with him?! And when the believer who is insulted and challenged in battle is the chief of believers i.e. Ameerul Momineen, then one cannot even imagine the intensity of the crime near Allah.
Invites curse of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.)
Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) informed: …surely the companions of Jamal were cursed by the tongue of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)…
- Al-Kafeah p 24-25
- Tarf min al-Amba p 464
- Behaar al-Anwaar v 32 p 196-197
While addressing the rebellious people of Basrah (scene of the Jamal battle) Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) declared:
‘…you have been cursed by the tongues of 70 prophets…’
- Tafseer al-Qummi (r.a.) v 2 p 339-340 under Surah Najm (53):53
- Tafseer al-Safi (r.a.) v 5 p 97 under Surah Najm (53):53
- Al-Burhan v 5 p 209 under Surah Najm (53):53
- Behaar al-Anwaar v 32 p 226
- Majma al-Bahrain v 5 p 253
Divorce from marriage with the Prophet (s.a.w.a.)
For the wives of Prophet (s.a.w.a.), rebelling against Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) leads to divorce from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.).
Imam Mahdi (a.t.f.s.) narrates that the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) instructed Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) regarding the wives:
Surely this nobility (of being Ummul Momineen) will remain only for those who continue in their obedience, Then whosoever of them disobeys Allah after me by coming out in war against you then divorce her from the marriage and remove from her the noble position of Ummul Momineen (Mother of Believers),
- Kamaluddeen v 2 p 459
The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had delegated right to divorce his wives to Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) and he (a.s.) in turn delegated it to Imam Hasan (a.s.) and he (a.s.) to Imam Husain (a.s.).
The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed – Surely from my wives there will be one who will not want to face me on the Day of Judgement, she is the one divorced by my successors.
- Ithbat al-Hodat v 2 p 255
Disobeying Ali (a.s.) invites destruction
The wives were warned about respecting commands and prohibitions of Ali (a.s.), likely because the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) knew there would be an occasion when the wives would challenge him (a.s.) in battle.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) instructed Umm Salma’s (s.a.) maid – Assemble my wives here.
Then when they had assembled at Umm Salma’s (s.a.) place, he (s.a.w.a.) addressed them:
Pay heed what to what I am about to say to you and then he (s.a.w.a.) pointed towards Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) and declared:
Ali (a.s.) is my brother, my successor, my vicegerent and your custodian and custodian of my nation after me.
Obey him when he instructs you and never disobey him, for your disobedience will destroy you.
- Al-Tarf min al-Amba wa al-Manaqib p 442, 464, 481, 495
- Irshad al-Quloob v 2 p 337
- Ithbat al-Hodat v 3 p 167
- Behar al-Anwar v 28 p 107
The Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) dire warning was for mere disobedience. Then what can one say about the one who dared to come out in battle against Ameerul Momineen (a.s.).
Open indecency as warned by the Holy Quran
Muhammad Ibn Muslim narrates from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that Imam (a.s.) asked –
Do you know what الْفَاحِشَةُ الْمُبَيِّنَةُ ‘open indecency’ (in Surah Ahzab (33): Verse 30) means?
I said – No.
Imam (a.s.) – Fighting Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) i.e. meaning People of Jamal.
- Tafseer al-Burhan v 4 p 441 under Surah Ahzab (33): Verse 30
- Taveel al-Ayaat p 446 Surah Ahzab (33): Verse 30
- Behar al-Anwar v 31 p 640, v 32 p 286
Clearly, going to battle with Ameerul Momineen (a.s.), or another Imam of the time, is a most serious crime comparable with violating the sanctity of Tauheed and Prophethood (i.e. the rebel has in fact gone to war against Allah and His Prophet (s.a.w.a.)). It takes the rebel outside the realm of Islam and if Muslims still find such personalities worthy of respect and merit, then one can only wish that they are raised alongside them on the Day of Resurrection.